Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick.The Antikythera mechanism, dating from about the beginning of the first century BC, is generally considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog-computer and the earliest known geared mechanism.Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.

Electronic computers using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. The electro-mechanical Zuse Z3 completed in 1941, was the world’s first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages, was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring.The first recognisably modern electronic digital stored programmed computer  was,Manchester Baby which ran its first program on 21 June 1948

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